Maximum interval between doses
If you violated the terms of vaccinations.
If for any reason your child has not been vaccinated in accordance with the immunization schedule, it’s likely that his body isn’t protected from dangerous infections and may require continued immunization. However, each of the vaccines differ in antigenic composition, the intensity of the reactions that it causes in the body and duration of action. Therefore, the question about what the future vaccination timing, always solved individually, given the state of immune system, cardiac illnesses and a variety of vaccines. As a guide to build a future schedule of vaccinations, it is possible to result the following General recommendations, which are considered a violation of vaccinations performed separately for each category of vaccines.
• If you omit the first vaccination against hepatitis b, that is, it has not been done in the first 12 hours after the baby is born, we can begin vaccination at any subsequent day and follow a standard pattern – the second grafting is done in a month, and the third after 5 months.
• If you omit vaccination against hepatitis b, which is done according to the vaccination calendar, a month after the birth, you can do it after a maximum of 4 months after the first. The smaller the interval, the more reliable the immune system will be formed. If the execution time of the first vaccination has been more than 4 months, we usually continue the administration of vaccines as if not lost to vaccinations, but in this case the chances of inadequate immunization. If the doctor doubts the effectiveness of future vaccination, may require the determination of antibodies to hepatitis b virus in blood of the child, with the obligatory quantitative research.
• If you omit the third vaccination against hepatitis b, you can not worry about the decrease in vaccine efficacy over 18 months after the first vaccination. This is the maximum time interval after which to complete the course, you’ll likely need analysis on the concentration of antibodies against hepatitis B. In some cases, when sufficient immunity is not formed even after completing the course of vaccination may require additional vaccination.
• If violated the terms of vaccination BCG vaccination against tuberculosis do on the fourth month of life. Before the vaccination, be sure to perform a sample “test” and vaccination is carried out only upon receipt of a negative result. A positive test may mean that the child has already encountered the causative agent of tuberculosis and possibly infected. This is an indication for further, more detailed investigation. The timing of vaccinations due to the fact that the first 3 months of life the immune system has not yet formed enough to give an adequate response to the injection of tuberculin, which is used during the tests “test”, and the reaction may be falsely negative. If you haven’t been vaccinated, but it is known that the child had contact with tuberculosis patients or the carrier of the Bacillus, then prescribe low doses of anti-TB drugs and after preventive course of treatment examined the reaction of “test”. Positive samples continue treatment, negative perform vaccination with subsequent isolation of the child during the week. For the normal formation of postvaccinal immunity between BCG vaccination and other vaccinations must be at least a month.
• If you missed DPT, which according to the vaccination calendar perform in 3 months, then start the vaccination course at any time before the age of 4 years. After 4 years of age is not allowed the introduction of the domestic production of vaccines with pertussis component, but you can apply the French analogue of Tetracom (component against polio in the composition). With 4 to 6 years grafting is done by the TD vaccine, and after reaching 6 years of age use the ADB. This vaccine without the pertussis component, the latter contains a lower dosage. If the child is ill with whooping cough, and you have not made a single DTP vaccinations, then the vaccination TD toxoid (two vaccinations with a month break and one booster a year later).
• Violation of the terms of vaccination second vaccination DTP does not entail a repetition of the entire cycle – the introduction of vaccines continues as if the schedule did not get off, maintaining the interval between vaccinations 30 days. If the child is ill with pertussis, DTP vaccinations he will no longer do, instead, used the ADB, and after 9-12 months the ADB repeat
• If you omit the third DTP vaccine, then do it, regardless of the pass. If the child has twice vaccinated with DTP had whooping cough, he did not continue the vaccination course and consider it completed. Boosting is carried out by the ADB, after 9-12 months. As mentioned earlier, from 4 years of age administered the vaccine without the pertussis component. In order to have time to fully vaccinate a child against whooping cough, sometimes it makes sense to perform the first revaccination DTP, having sustained only minimal permissible interval – 6 months.
• If deadlines are missed the first polio vaccination, children up to 6 years vaccination do twice, with an interval of 30 days. Children 6 years of age the vaccine is administered once.
• If you omit the second vaccination against polio, vaccination again begin, and continue, despite the increased interval. The current immunization schedule is built with the use of OPV (polio vaccine), but a valid replacement IPV (inactivated vaccine more effective).
• If you have missed the third or fourth vaccination against poliomyelitis, the tactic is the same as when you pass the second vaccination. It is important that before reaching 2 years of age the child was vaccinated 5 times with OPV or 4 IPV. In a joint application of vaccines the total number of vaccinations should not be less than 4.
Measles, rubella, mumps
• In that case, if your vaccination schedule was off and you missed the first vaccination against measles, rubella or mumps, it is best to execute it immediately, as soon as possible. According to the immunization schedule, vaccination against these infections is carried out simultaneously in different parts of the body of the child, separate syringes or through the use of combined vaccines containing components against several infections. To separate the administration of vaccines should not be necessary in that case, if the child is ill with any of the infections against which no longer requires the creation of specific immunity. Even if the timing of vaccination were significantly shifted, subsequent revaccination is performed in that age, which is marked in the national immunization schedule.
• If you omit a revaccination against measles, rubella or mumps, the grafting is done at any appropriate time, trying to build immunity before enrolling the child in school. If for any reason, vaccination against rubella, mumps and measles are one-component nanovaccine, the recommended interval should not be less than one month. Otherwise there is a risk of inactivation of the second vaccine, the immune cells generated in response to the introduction of the first vaccine.
• If you omit a rubella vaccine, which is girls in their Teens, it is made immediately, as soon as the condition. Vaccination can be done at any age with the exception of pregnancy.