The form and organization of the educational process:

Practical lesson.

The relevance of the topic:

The problem of providing dental care to children with dentoalveolar anomalies and deformities in the terms of the dental clinics is relevant due to the high prevalence of TJA in the structure of dental diseases in children. Also important are the information about the effect of bad habits on the formation of dentofacial deformities.

On the basis of knowledge about morphological and functional norm in the development of the dentition, to learn to identify and eliminate bad habits in children.

1. Source control knowledge (tests).

2. Independent work:

inspection of the oral cavity in children;

development of recommendations for eliminating harmful habits;

– the decision of situational problems.

3. The final control of knowledge:

– the decision of situational tasks

test control.

Basic concepts and provisions of the theme:

Under “harmful” habits in dentistry accept various children’s habits affecting the growth and development of the jaw and other facial bones and the surrounding soft tissues.

Classification of harmful habits (by V. P. Okusko)

1. Habit of sucking (fixed motor responses )

a) the habit of finger sucking

b) habit of sucking and biting of lips, cheeks, items

in) the habit of sucking and tongue biting.

2. Anomalies functions (recorded incorrectly flowing function )

(a) impaired chewing function

b) incorrect swallowing habit and pressure of the tongue on the teeth.

b) wrong speech articulation

3. Recorded Pozo – tonic reflexes that determine the incorrect position of body parts alone

a) incorrect body posture and incorrect posture

b) incorrect position of the lower jaw and tongue alone.

A combination of several bad habits in preschool children observed in 13%. The frequency of bad habits decreases with age: from 24% in 1-3 years 12% 3-5 years and 7.6% in 6-7 year old children, whereas the frequency TJA, on the contrary, increases.

The most common bad habit of sucking. The result of prolonged use of pacifier and pacifier is an open bite in the anterior, the protrusion of the incisors of the upper jaw, the narrowing of the upper dentition. We can assume that the occurrence of harmful sucking habits should contribute to feeding the baby from a nipple with a large hole when the milk flows freely from the bottle.

The habit of sucking on big or index finger usually occurs in 5 years. If you do not eliminate bad habit, it can cause serious deformation of dentition,outdoor in the anterior occlusion, narrowing of the upper dentition, etc.). Early detection and elimination of harmful habits can prevent the development of deformity or fix it with a simple removable orthodontic appliances.

Marked the emergence of harmful sucking habits in healthy children during somatic and infectious diseases, stressful situations.

The appearance SCAD closely associated with the removal of teeth. Only half of the children with remote temporary molars stored orthognatic bite. The others identified ristananna and a half times more often mesial occlusion. When cancerogene teeth is detected by the displacement of the adjacent spaced in front of and behind the teeth at the side of the defect of dentition. Especially undesirable removal of temporary molars for the eruption of the first permanent molars. It is established that the earlier the teeth were removed, the greater the probability of occurrence of anomalies.

Disruption of muscle ANESTHESIA can lead to improper growth of the jaws and deformation of dentition. When orthognathic occlusion functional disorders of the circular muscles of the mouth are observed only 12.4%, whereas the anomalies of occlusion — in 68%. Proven the effectiveness of training with vestibular plate to eliminate the sagittal fissure, and reducing the length of the upper dental arch.

Revealed increased tone actually masticatory muscles in children with distal occlusion, and contractile function on the amplitude of contraction was decreased. The bioelectrical activity of the circular muscle of the mouth is reduced, but increased the activity of the muscles of the tongue, and the contractile ability of the latter more than the contractility of the muscles of the upper lip.

Found that lengthening the front of the upper dentition and the inclination of the incisors of the upper jaw the longer, the result is the deviation of the functional parameters of the muscles of the upper lip and tongue. In children with progenesis bite had a slightly increased pressure of the tongue on the upper and lower dentition, unlike children with orthognathic and prognathic bite. In skeletal open bite was reduced the force of contraction of the temporal and masseter muscles, but increased muscle strength, lowering the lower jaw, decreased contractility of the muscles of mastication during chewing can be one of the causes of dentoalveolar elongation in the lateral parts.

In addition to all the above factors need to be considered also the environment, since for the normal development and formation of TJS, and the whole body needs specific environmental conditions, and their deterioration has a negative impact on these natural processes. The prevalence of TJA among the examined children living in the Bryansk region and exposed to radioactive radiation, was 1.8 times higher in the group of children born after the Chernobyl accident than the control.

Set a higher level of dental morbidity in children living in industrial areas and exposed to atmospheric pollutants from large industrial enterprises of Novosibirsk, Chita. the city of Krasnoyarsk.

Orthodontist must pay great attention to the General condition and development of the child’s body. Especially close contact between the orthodontist and the pediatrician should have a place in the treatment of children with chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, blood diseases, etc.). The use of orthodontic appliances or aseparator methods of treatment in these children gives additional stress often worsens the course of chronic disease. Any impact on the body causes a reaction from the Central nervous system. In addition, possible adverse changes in the oral cavity during treatment apparatus.

A major role in the development of methods of prevention and early treatment of anomalies plays a study and introduction in practice of work of the orthodontist etiopathogenetic therapy. Questions the prevalence of disease require a comprehensive study of their causes and development, because up to 90% of research carried out in the world, belong to the study of the impact of isolated factors on one of the components of health.

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